Sentiments are a set of culture and class value judgments, that while rational and economic in nature, are unarticulated, since they are taught by habit, tradition, family, environment, narrative, and allegorical experience. Unarticulated Social Portfolio Contents.

Pareto: “Never take ideas at their face value; do not look at people’s mouths but try to probe deeper to the real springs of their actions.”

Pareto: “People seek to justify their sentiments. They seek reasons to believe what they already believe. They do not seek objective truth. The seek confirmation of what they already feel.”Sentiments are a set of culture and class value judgments, that while rational and economic in nature, are unarticulated, since they are taught by habit, tradition, family, environment, narrative, and allegorical experience. Unarticulated Social Portfolio Contents.

Pareto: “Never take ideas at their face value; do not look at people’s mouths but try to probe deeper to the real springs of their actions.”

Pareto: “People seek to justify their sentiments. They seek reasons to believe what they already believe. They do not seek objective truth. The seek confirmation of what they already feel.”

Machiavelli breaks people into two dominant classes: the conservative defenders of status quo (violent ‘lions’), and the radical promoters of change (cunning ‘foxes’). In his view of society, the power constantly passes from ‘foxes’ to ‘lions’ and vice versa. (He did not imagine ‘managers’, the managerial society, the use of credit by bankers, and their use of ‘calculation’.)

    NOTE: Machiavelli did not say that “The ends justify the means.” The correct translation would be ‘one must consider the result’. Or ‘one must keep in mind the outcome’. This is a typically teleological and consequentialist view of ethics. He is much maligned, and unjustly so. He is the first political scientist after Aristotle.

Pareto’s Class I and II residues are an extension and amplification of certain aspects of political theorizing set down in the fifteenth century by Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli divided humans into two classes, foxes and lions. The qualities he ascribes to these two classes of men resemble quite closely the qualities typical of Pareto’s Class I and Class II residue types. Men with strong Class I residues are the “foxes,” tending to be manipulative, innovative, calculating, and imaginative. Entrepreneurs prone to taking risks, inventors, scientists, authors of fiction, politicians, and creators of complex philosophies fall into this category. Class II men are “lions” and place much more value on traits such as good character and devotion to duty than on sheer wits. They are the defenders of tradition, the guardians of religious dogma, and the protectors of national honor. For society to function properly there must be a balance between these two types of individuals; the functional relationship between the two is complementary.

    Pareto defines the following ‘Residues’.

    • Class I (Foxes) is the “instinct for combinations.” This is the manifestation of sentiments in individuals and in society that tends towards progressiveness, inventiveness, and the desire for adventure. Class I Foxes attempt to use VERBALISMS to influence the “TIE BREAKER” decisions in a society in order to alter the spending in the SOCIAL PORTFOLIO to change the properties of the ETHICAL ACCOUNTS in the SOCIAL ORDER, in order to transfer opportunity, POWER and wealth from one group to another.

      That this transfer needs to occur on a regular basis in order for society to adapt, is not in question. Whether or not social stability, the competitiveness of the society is preserved or increased, or whether the power will end up in hands who would materially better the society rather than just reallocate its wealth and power is always open to question.

    • Class II (Lions) residues have to do with what Pareto calls the “preservation of aggregates” and encompass the more conservative side of human nature, including loyalty to society’s enduring institutions such as family, church, community, and nation and the desire for permanency and security.
    • Class III residues (Group Rituals) have to do with the need to express sentiments through external action. Pareto’s Religious and patriotic ceremonies and pageantry stand out as examples of these residues and will include such things as saluting the flag, participating in a Christian communion service, marching in a military parade, and so on. In other words, human beings tend to manifest their feelings in symbols.
    • Class IV residues (Moral Sentiments), the SOCIAL PORTFOLIO, are the social instinct, embracing manifestations of sentiments in support of the individual and societal discipline that is indispensable for maintaining the social structure. This includes phenomena such as self-sacrifice for the sake of family and community and concepts such as the hierarchical arrangement of societies.
    • Class V is that quality in a society that stresses individual integrity and the integrity of the individual’s possessions and appurtenances – ‘things that belong together’, or PROPERTY DEFINITIONS. These residues contribute to social stability, systems of criminal and civil law being the most obvious examples.
    • Class VI, which is the sexual instinct or the tendency to see social events in sexual terms.

    These residues are universal to all societies. However, each society creates multiple ‘Derivations’ that justify these sentiments. These derivations vary from society to society.


    Pareto uses the term “derivations,” for ostensibly logical justifications that people employ to rationalize their essentially non-logical, sentiment-driven actions. Pareto names four principle classes of derivations:

    1. Derivations of assertion; statements of a dogmatic or aphoristic nature, for example the saying, “honesty is the best policy.”
    2. Derivations of authority; authority, is an appeal to people or concepts held in high esteem by tradition. To cite the opinion of one of the American Founding Fathers on some topic of current interest is to draw from Class II derivations.
    3. Derivations that are in agreement with common sentiments and principles: appeals to “universal judgement,” the “will of the people,” the “best interests of the majority,” or similar sentiments.
    4. Derivations of verbal proof: Relying upon various verbal gymnastics, metaphors, allegories, and so forth.


SENTIMENT MAP – (undone)

  1. CARE for others, protecting them from harm. (He also referred to this dimension as Harm.)
  2. FAIRNESS, Justice, treating others equally.
  3. LOYALTY to your group, family, nation. (He also referred to this dimension as Ingroup.)
  4. TRADITION – Respect for tradition and legitimate authority. (He also referred to this dimension as Authority.)
  5. PURITY, avoiding disgusting things, foods, actions and ideas.

Haidt found that Americans who identified as liberals tend to value care and fairness considerably higher than loyalty, respect, and purity. Self-identified conservative Americans value all five values more equally, though at a lower level than the liberal concern for care and fairness. Both groups gave care the highest over-all weighting, but conservatives valued fairness the lowest, whereas liberals valued purity the lowest. Similar results were found across the political spectrum in other countries.


The conflicts below define the history of philosophy as an attempt to justify existing norms, or an appeal to modify them so that we may adapt to the future or regress into the past, or to rationalize our instinctual sentiments.

1) First, between man’s primary desire to retreat into the limits of his senses in the face of evolving complexity, and his reluctant acknowledgement that he must learn and employ the tools of reason and calculation in order to extend those limited senses, despite the discomfort these unintuitive abstract tools subject him to.

2) Second, the conflict between his preference for the material ease of commercial society and his emotional discomfort at the consequential alienation caused by post-tribal, post familial, and increasingly individualistic commercial society.

3) Third, between the comfort of historical norms and the precious status we achieve by adhering to them, and the opportunity of economic, technical and organizational innovation that of necessity disrupts those norms.

4) Fourth, the need to develop justification of our system of norms such that we can resist or conquer the economic strategies, organizational strategies, and status signals embedded in competing systems of norms.”

5) Fifth, the class struggle that arises in the division of knowledge and labor, due to the increasingly influential differences in intelligence and ability, the persistent advantage of familial resources and habits, and the increasing effects of knowledge within a complex economy.

6) Sixth, the class struggle is fueled by public elites, and elites arise not from social classes as much as from specialization in one of the three limited means of coercion: The Application of Force (violent coercion) by military, law or politics, The Use of Moral Argument (moral coercion) by the priesthood, academia, or public intellectuals, or the Use of Exchange (remunerative coercion) by bankers, financiers and entrepreneurs. In contemporary politics, precisely because the USA is so internationally powerful, the military has no political voice, and soldiers avoid politics. Public intellectuals and entrepreneurs are conducting a Schumpeterian battle for political power, and the stalemate is polarizing.

6) And seventh, between the masculine aristocratic inter-temporal instinct to concentrate capital and to constrain the breeding and consumption of the lower classes, and the feminine communal instinct to perpetuate her genes no matter how she has bred them, and her defensive posture of granting others the same opportunity, despite that it threatens us with Malthusian fragility.

The most important is the last: the conflict of gender strategies has been us since before the dawn of civilization. It’s between the patrilineal, hierarchical, expansionist, sky worshipping, technology adapting societies versus Matrilineal, communal, sedentary and earth worshipping societies. And societies can change. Groups under threat or empowered become more masculine, groups that are weak or isolated become feminine. The same is true for tribes as it is for nation states. (See Power and Weakness by Kagan)

While Jonathan Haight is correct, in observing that there are five (or six) sentiments. And he is correct that progressives use only two. And correct that conservatives make use of all five. He does not explain that these sentiments originate in pre-cognitive reproductive strategies unique to each gender. Nor does he discuss the malthusian consequences of the feminine bias.



Cialdini defines six “weapons of influence”:

  1. Reciprocity – People tend to return a favor, thus the pervasiveness of free samples in marketing. In his conferences, he often uses the example of Ethiopia providing thousands of dollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico just after the 1985 earthquake, despite Ethiopia suffering from a crippling famine and civil war at the time. Ethiopia had been reciprocating for the diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. The good cop/bad cop strategy is also based on this principle.
  2. Commitment and Consistency – If people commit, orally or in writing, to an idea or goal, they are more likely to honor that commitment. Even if the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have already agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. For example, in car sales, suddenly raising the price at the last moment works because the buyer has already decided to buy. See cognitive dissonance.
  3. Social Proof – People will do things that they see other people are doing. For example, in one experiment, one or more confederates would look up into the sky; bystanders would then look up into the sky to see what they were seeing. At one point this experiment aborted, as so many people were looking up that they stopped traffic. See conformity, and the Asch conformity experiments.
  4. Authority – People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are asked to perform objectionable acts. Cialdini cites incidents such as the Milgram experiments in the early 1960s and the My Lai massacre.
  5. Liking – People are easily persuaded by other people that they like. Cialdini cites the marketing of Tupperware in what might now be called viral marketing. People were more likely to buy if they liked the person selling it to them. Some of the many biases favoring more attractive people are discussed. See physical attractiveness stereotype.
  6. Scarcity – Perceived scarcity will generate demand. For example, saying offers are available for a “limited time only” encourages sales.