List Of Cognitive Biases

1. Reproductive Biases
2. Subjective-Objective Biases
3. Moral Biases
3. Metaphysical Biases
3. Cultural Biases
4. Familial Biases
5. Social Biases
6. Memory Biases
7. Decision Biases
8. Probability Biases

REPRODUCTIVE BIASES

Contributed By Curt Doolittle:
(undone)

SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE BIASES

Contributed By Curt Doolittle:

“Solipsistic – Autistic Spectrum Biases”
The tendency for individuals to display behaviors from the extremely solipsistic inability to separate personal emotional experiences from those of others, to the extremely autistic inability to perceive the self and the self’s emotions. (Summer 2013 Propertarianism.com.)

MORAL BIASES

by Jonathan Haidt

Care: Care<-vs->Harm for others, protecting them from harm.

Proportionality: Fairness <-> Cheating), Justice, treating others in proportion to their actions.

Liberty: Liberty <-vs-> Oppression, characterizes judgments in terms of whether subjects are tyrannized.

In-Group: Loyalty<-vs->Betrayal to your group, family, nation.

Respect: Authority<-vs->Subversion for tradition and legitimate authority.

Purity: Sanctity<-vs->Degradation, avoiding disgusting things, foods, actions.

METAPHYSICAL BIASES

Prepared by Curt Doolittle.
(undone)

CULTURAL BIASES

Prepared by Curt Doolittle.
(undone)

FAMILIAL BIASES

Prepared by Curt Doolittle.
(undone)

SOCIAL BIASES

Prepared by Eric Fernandez – RoyalSocietyOfAccountPlanning.blogspot.com

Forer effect / Barnum effect :The tendency to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. For example, horoscopes.

Ingroup bias: The tendency for people to give preferential treatment to others they perceive to be members of their own groups.

Self-fulfilling prophecy: The tendency to engage in behaviors that elicit results which will (consciously or not) confirm existing attitudes.

Halo effect: The tendency for a person’s positive or negative traits to “spill over” from one area of their personality to another in others’ perceptions of them (see also physical attractiveness stereotype).

Ultimate attribution error: Similar to the fundamental attribution error, in this error a person is likely to make an internal attribution to an entire group instead of the individuals within the group.

False consensus effect: The tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.

Self-serving bias / Behavioral confirmation effect: The tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests (see also group-serving bias).

Notational bias: A form of cultural bias in which the notational conventions of recording data biases the appearance of that data toward (or away from) the system upon which the notational schema is based.

Egocentric bias: Occurs when people claim more responsibility for themselves for the results of a joint action than an outside observer would.

System justification effect / Status Quo Bias: The tendency to defend and bolster the status quo. Existing social, economic, and political arrangements tend to be preferred, and alternatives disparaged sometimes even at the expense of individual and collective self-interest. (See also status quo bias.)

Dunning-Kruger / Superiority Bias: Overestimating one’s desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable qualities, relative to other people. Also known as Superiority bias (also known as “Lake Wobegon effect”, “better-than-average effect”, “superiority bias”, or Dunning-Kruger effect).

Illusion of asymmetric insight: People perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers’ knowledge of them.

Herd instinct: Common tendency to adopt the opinions and follow the behaviors of the majority to feel safer and to avoid conflict.

Illusion of transparency: People overestimate others’ ability to know them, and they also overestimate their ability to know others.

Fundamental attribution error / Actor-observer bias: The tendency for people to over-emphasize personality-based explanations for behaviors observed in others while under- emphasizing the role and power of situational influences on the same behavior (see also actor-observer bias, group attribution error, positivity effect, and negativity effect).

Projection bias: The tendency to unconsciously assume that others share the same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions.

Outgroup homogeneity bias: Individuals see members of their own group as being relatively more varied than members of other groups.

Trait ascription bias: The tendency for people to view themselves as relatively variable in terms of personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as much more predictable.

Just-world phenomenon: The tendency for people to believe that the world is just and therefore people “get what they deserve.”

MEMORY BIASES

Suggestibility: A form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory.

Reminiscence bump: The effect that people tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods.

Cryptomnesia / False memory: A form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, or the confusion of true memories with false memories.

Consistency bias: Incorrectly remembering one’s past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behavior.

Rosy Retrospection: The tendency to rate past events more positively than they had actually rated them when the event occurred. Also Nostalgia: The Nostalgic Bias. The extension of the Memory Bias of Rosy Retrospection to historical events prior to the individual’s experience.

Self-serving bias: Perceiving oneself responsible for desirable outcomes but not responsible for undesirable ones.

Egocentric bias: Recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g. remembering one’s exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as being bigger than it was.

Hindsight bias: Filtering memory of past events through present knowledge, so that those events look more predictable than they actually were; also known as the ‘I-knew-it-all-along effect’.

DECISION MAKING BIASES

Hyperbolic discounting: The tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, where the tendency increases the closer to the present both payoffs are.

Irrational escalation: The tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past or to justify actions already taken.

Omission bias: The tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions (inactions).

Mere exposure effect : The tendency for people to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them.

Negativity bias: Phenomenon by which humans pay more attention to and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information.

Interloper effect / Consultation paradox: The tendency to value third party consultation as objective, confirming, and without motive. Also consultation paradox, the conclusion that solutions proposed by existing personnel within an organization are less likely to receive support than from those recruited for that purpose.

Normalcy bias: The refusal to plan for, or react to, a disaster which has never happened before.

Neglect of probability: The tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty.

Focusing effect: Prediction bias occurring when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.

Illusion of control: The tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly cannot.

Outcome bias: The tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.

Post-purchase rationalization: The tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good value.

Framing: Using an approach or description of the situation or issue that is too narrow. Also framing effect – drawing different conclusions based on how data is presented.

Experimenter’s or Expectation bias: The tendency for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations.

Information bias: The tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action.

Extraordinarity bias: The tendency to value an object more than others in the same category as a result of an extraordinarity of that object that does not, in itself, change the value.

Planning fallacy: The tendency to underestimate task-completion times.

Déformation professionnelle: The tendency to look at things according to the conventions of one’s own profession, forgetting any broader point of view.

Impact bias: The tendency for people to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.

Bias blind spot: The tendency not to compensate for one’s own cognitive biases.

Semmelweis reflex: The tendency to reject new evidence that contradicts an established paradigm.

Not Invented Here: The tendency to ignore that a product or solution already exists, because its source is seen as an “enemy” or as “inferior”.

Moral credential effect: The tendency of a track record of non-prejudice to increase subsequent prejudice.

Base rate fallacy: Ignoring available statistical data in favor of particulars.

Confirmation bias: The tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions.

Choice-supportive bias: The tendency to remember one’s choices as better than they actually were.

Endowment effect / Loss aversion: “the fact that people often demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it”. (see also sunk cost effects)

Congruence bias: The tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses.

Distinction bias: The tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them simultaneously than when evaluating them separately.

Contrast effect: The enhancement or diminishing of a weight or other measurement when compared with a recently observed contrasting object.

Bandwagon effect
The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related to groupthink and herd behaviour.

Denomination effect: The tendency to spend more money when it is denominated in small amounts (e.g. coins) rather than large amounts (e.g. bills).

Selective perception: The tendency for expectations to affect perception.

Restraint bias: The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to show restraint in the face of temptation.

Von Restorff effect: The tendency for an item that “stands out like a sore thumb” to be more likely to be remembered than other items.

Pseudocertainty effect: The tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.

Mental Accounting –  An economic concept which states that individuals divide their current and future assets into separate, non-transferable portions. The theory purports individuals assign different levels of utility to each asset group, which affects their consumption decisions and other behaviors. The importance of this theory is illustrated in its application towards the economic behavior of individuals, and thus entire populations and markets. Rather than rationally viewing every dollar as identical, mental accounting helps explain why many investors designate some of their dollars as “safety” capital.

Money illusion: The tendency of people to concentrate on the nominal (face value) of money rather than its value in terms of purchasing power.

Wishful thinking: The formation of beliefs and the making of decisions according to what is pleasing to imagine instead of by appeal to evidence or rationality.

Zero-risk bias: Preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk.

Reactance: The urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice.

Status quo bias: The tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same (see also loss aversion, endowment effect, and system justification).

Need for Closure: The need to reach a verdict in important matters; to have an answer and to escape the feeling of doubt and uncertainty. The personal context (time or social pressure) might increase this bias.

PROBABILITY BIASES

Positive outcome bias: The tendency to overestimate the probability of good things happening to them (see also wishful thinking, optimism bias, and valence effect).

Telescoping effect: The effect that recent events appear to have occurred more remotely and remote events appear to have occurred more recently.

Survivorship bias: The tendency to concentrate on the people or things that “survived” some process and ignoring those that didn’t, or arguing that a strategy is effective given the winners, while ignoring the large amount of losers.

Selection bias: A distortion of evidence or data that arises from the way that the data are collected.

Texas sharpshooter fallacy: The fallacy of selecting or adjusting a hypothesis after the data is collected, making it impossible to test the hypothesis fairly. Refers to the concept of firing shots at a barn door, drawing a circle around the best group, and declaring that to be
the target.

Pareidolia: A vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) is perceived as significant, e.g., seeing images of animals or faces in clouds, the man in the moon, and hearing hidden messages on records played in reverse.

Outcome bias: The tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.

Disregard of regression toward the mean: The tendency to expect extreme performance to continue.

Overconfidence effect: Excessive confidence in one’s own answers to questions. For example, for certain types of question, answers that people rate as “99% certain” turn out to be wrong 40% of the time.

Observer- expectancy effect: When a researcher expects a given result and therefore unconsciously manipulates an experiment or misinterprets data in order to find it (see also subject-expectancy effect).

Hindsight bias: Sometimes called the “I-knew-it-all-along” effect, the tendency to see past events as being predictable.

Hawthorne effect: The tendency to perform or perceive differently when one knows they are being observed.

Gambler’s fallacy: The tendency to think that future probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality they are unchanged. Results from an erroneous conceptualization of the Law of large numbers. For example, “I’ve flipped heads with this coin five times consecutively, so the chance of tails coming out on the sixth flip is much greater than heads.”

Clustering illusion: The tendency to see patterns where actually none exist. Gilovich example: “OXXXOXXXOXXOOOXOOXXOO”

Illusory correlation: Beliefs that inaccurately suppose a relationship between a certain type of action and an effect.

Last illusion: The belief that someone must know what is going on.

Availability heuristic: Estimating what is more likely by what is more available in memory, which is biased toward vivid, unusual, or emotionally charged examples.

Belief bias: An effect where someone’s evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion.

Ostrich effect: Ignoring an obvious (negative) situation.

Attentional bias: The tendency to neglect relevant data when making judgments of a correlation or association.

Disposition effect: The tendency to sell assets that have increased in value but hold assets that have decreased in value.

Availability cascade: A self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse (or “repeat something long enough and it will become true”).

Conjunction fallacy: The tendency to assume that specific conditions are more probable than general ones.

Ambiguity effect: The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem “unknown”.

Capability bias: The tendency to believe that the closer average performance is to a target, the tighter the distribution of the data set.

Authority bias: The tendency to value an ambiguous stimulus (e.g., an art performance) according to the opinion of someone who is seen as an authority on the topic.

Stereotyping: Expecting a member of a group to have certain characteristics without having actual information about that individual.

Subjective validation: perception that something is true if a subject’s belief demands it to be true. Also assigns perceived connections between coincidences.

Subadditivity effect: The tendency to judge probability > of the whole to be less than the
probabilities of the parts.

Well travelled road effect: Underestimation of the duration taken to traverse oft-traveled routes and over-estimate the duration taken to traverse less familiar routes.

Anchoring effect: The tendency to rely too heavily, or “anchor,” on a past reference or on one trait or piece of information when making decisions (also called “insufficient adjustment”).

Recency effect / Peak-end rule: The tendency to weigh recent events more than earlier events .

Primacy effect: The tendency to weigh initial events more than subsequent events.

Optimism bias: The tendency to be over- optimistic about the outcome of planned actions.

Neglect of prior base rates effect: The tendency to neglect known odds when reevaluating odds in light of weak evidence.

Disposition effect: The tendency to sell assets that have increased in value but hold assets that have decreased in value.